Category Archives: Gynecology

Freedom of Access to Clinic Entrances (F.A.C.E.) Act – est. 1994

By the 1990s, controversy and battle of abortion and contraception politics have been building up for centuries. In 1994, President Bill Clinton signed the Freedom of Access to Clinic Entrances Act, prohibiting the force, threat of force, or physical obstruction from an individual providing or receiving abortions.

This U.S. law prohibits the following:

  1. The use of physical force, threat of physical force, or physical obstruction to intentionally injure with or attempt to injure, intimidate or interfere with any persons who is obtaining reproductive health services or providing reproductive health services
  2. The use of physical force, threat of physical force, or physical obstruction to intentionally injure with or attempt to injure, intimidate or interfere with any person who is exercising or trying to exercise their First Amendment right of religious freedom at a place of religious worship
  3. The intentional damage or destruction of a reproductive health care facility or a place of worship

The following are not prohibited: – because of the First Amendment

  • Protesting outside of clinics
  • Distributing literature
  • Carrying signs
  • Shouting (as long as no threats are made)
  • Singing hymns

The F.A.C.E. act is not as commonly known, but it has had a great significant role in our freedoms to organize publicly and peacefully. With the subject of abortion and contraception becoming increasingly controversial, it became time to settle a law regarding the organization/protest of people in the year 1994.

F.A.C.E. helped make clear of the legalities allowing individuals their freedom of both speech and access to abortion. It was in efforts to lessen the amounts of violence that had previously taken place in the decades and centuries prior circulating around the abortion controversy. The F.A.C.E. Act fell on both sides of the controversy, helping both ends and further organizing the two halves in a more peaceful manner.

According to the National Abortion Federation (NAF), between the years 1977 and 2009, “there have been at least 9 murders, 17 attempted murders, 406 death threats, 179 incidents of assault or battery, and 5 kidnappings committed against abortion providers. In addition, since 1977 in the United States and Canada, property crimes committed against abortion providers have included 41 bombings, 175 arsons, 96 attempted bombings or arsons, 692 bomb threats, 1993 incidents of trespassing, 1400 incidents of vandalism, and 100 attacks with butyric acid (stink bombs).” It is crimes like these, and the amounts of which there are, that make the F.A.C.E. Acts valid.

While combining the protection of clinics, physicians, and patients along with religious freedoms, both left and right wing politics are compromised.


  • “Civil Rights Division Freedom of Access to Reproductive Health Clinics and Places of Religious Worship.” Civil Rights Division Freedom of Access to Reproductive Health Clinics and Places of Religious Worship. United States Department of Justice, n.d. Web. 03 Dec. 2014. <;.
  • “NAF Violence and Disruption Statistics: Incidents of Violence & Disruption Against Abortion Providers in the U.S. & Canada.” Apr 2009. National Abortion Federation, Web. 22 Nov 2014.

Dr. Horatio R. Storer (1830-1922)

Photo: Dr. Horatio Storer

Dr. Horatio Robinson Storer is not one that is of regular familiarity. He was an American physician and founder of modern gynecology, and is also known to have had a major role in the Physicians’ Crusade Against Abortion. As a student of Harvard Medical School, he was especially interested in female genitalia and gynecological studies, which was of high suspicion at the time. Not only was it unacceptable to have a specialization in practice in general at such an early stage in study, but to have one of women and gynecology was simply unheard of.
In 1865, Storer won an AMA prize for his essay aimed at informing women about the moral and physical problems of induced abortion. This was published as Why Not? A Book for Every Woman. It was widely sold and many physicians distributed it to patients who requested abortion.” Dr. Storer also published the first journal of gynecology in 1869, the Journal of the Gynaecological Society of Boston.
It was Dr. Storer who began associating gynecology with mental illness. One of his most notable books, The Causation, Course, and Treatment of Reflex Insanity in Women, deals with the notion that In 1869, he was the first doctor to ever remove a pregnant uterus completely out of a woman’s body, as the use of hysterectomies began to be a form of treatment.
The Physicians’ Crusade Against Abortion was a movement founded by the American Medical Association, when Dr. Storer persuaded them to form a committee on criminal abortion. This movement began in Massachusetts and gained national attention, persuading the public to become educated with the pro-life views of the time. It was all in efforts to strengthen laws against elective abortions, pressuring legislatures of the states and territories in the United States. It was, in his mind, essential to attempt the illegalization of all forms of abortion.
Although the legacy that Dr. Horatio Storer left behind is great, he is more likely than not unheard of. Dr. Storer is the founder of modern gynecology practice and was a pioneer in the great Physicians’ Crusade Against Abortion in the 1850s. It is unclear as to why Storer was so against the abortion practice; like many of his time it could have been religiously related. It could have also been his great concern and love for the female anatomy. As the author of various informative books on women and women’s health, he was a man of great curiosity and attempted to educate people in the particular study.